URBAN FORM AND COMMUTING BEHAVIOR CHANGES (A LESSON TO BE LEARNED FROM THE CITY OF SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA)

Putu Alit Suthanaya


Abstract


Increasing car dependence is one major problems faced by many cities in the world. Many cities have set a target in the reduction of Vehicle Kilometer Traveled (VKT). To achieve this target, it is essential to understand how resident commuting preferences have changed following the change in the relative housing-job location (urban form) over time. This paper investigates the change in urban form over time and how this change has been followed by the change in the resident commuting preferences. A preference function was used to measure this commuting behavior. Sydney metropolitan region was selected as a case study area. It was found that as the urban form has changed over time, the resident commuting preferences have also changed. The increase in the accessibility to jobs experienced by most LGAs located in the outer ring of Sydney was not followed by the shift in the commuting preferences towards distance minimization instead it was followed by distance maximizing behavior. This has increased car dependency. Development of predictive land-use and transportation models need to consider this variation in behavioral response and how it changes over time. A trip distribution model with one global parameter is unlikely to give sufficient accuracy given changing patterns.


Keywords


reference functions, urban form.

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