Peningkatan Nilai Kalor Biomassa Kotoran Kuda dengan Metode Densifikasi dan Thermolisis

I Gede Bawa Susana




Abstract


Direct combustion of horse dung as an alternative fuel has caused a lot of smoke and dust. Its efficiency and heating value were low. To improve its properties, the conversion method (densification and thermolysis) can be applied to increase the biomass heating value of the horse dung. The densification process was done using a mixture of starch and horse dung with the following ratio 1:3; 1:5; 1:7; 1:10. The results of the horse dung biomass then being processed by thermolysis (pyrolysis) using an oven with constant heating temperature and holding time, and with the addition of inert gas. Heating temperature and holding time are 300oC and 2 hours respectively. The results of testing conducted on the samples showed that the conversion of biomass horse dung in densification and thermolisis/pyrolysis were able to increase their heating value. The biomass briquettes with the ratio 1:10, were produce the highest heating value (dry heating value) i.e. 4708,775 kcal/kg. While bio-charcoal briquettes with ratio1:10 (thermolysis/pyrolysis results with the addition of inert gas), their highest heating value was 5002,791 kcal/kg.


Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia:

Proses pembakaran langsung kotoran kuda yang digunakan sebagai bahan bakar alternatif memiliki kekurangan seperti asap yang banyak, debunya yang dapat mengganggu pernapasan, efisiensi dan nilai kalor yang cukup rendah. Oleh karena itu diterapkan metode konversi, yaitu densifikasi dan thermolisis untuk meningkatkan nilai kalor biomassa kotoran kuda. Untuk proses densifikasi digunakan campuran kanji dan kotoran kuda dengan komposisi 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:10. Hasil densifikasi biomassa kotoran kuda kemudian diproses secara thermolisis (pirolisis) menggunakan oven pemanas dengan suhu pemanasan dan waktu penahanan (holding time) yang konstan, yaitu 300oC dan 2 jam, serta perlakuan dengan gas inert. Hasil pengujian yang dilakukan pada sampel, didapatkan bahwa konversi biomassa kotoran kuda secara densifikasi dan thermolisis/pirolisis dapat meningkatkan nilai kalor, dimana untuk briket biomassa menghasilkan nilai kalor tertinggi pada perbandingan kanji dan kotoran kuda 1:10, sebesar 4708,775 kcal/kg. Sedangkan briket bioarang (hasil thermolisis/pirolisis) menghasilkan nilai kalor tertinggi pada perbandingan kanji dan kotoran kuda 1:10, dengan perlakuan gas inert sebesar 5002,791 kcal/kg.

Kata kunci: Kotoran kuda, biomassa, bioarang, thermolisis/pirolisis, nilai kalor.


Keywords


Horse dung, biomass, biocharcoal, thermolysis/pyrolysis, heating value.

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The Journal is published by The Institute of Research & Community Outreach - Petra Christian University. It available online supported by Directorate General of Higher Education - Ministry of National Education - Republic of Indonesia.


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