Aloysius Indratmo


Pêpindhan is a speech act expressing comparative meaning or explicit comparativeness. Its construction is formulated as follows: something being talked about (tenor) + a comparative marker + a vehicle. Comparative markers in pêpindhan can be a linguistic unit in the forms of: i) words having ‘like’ meaning, such as sasat, yayah, pindha, lir, kadya, kadi, kaya, pêrsis, and (ii) affixes attached the vehicle in the form of nasal prefixes {N-} and {aN-}, or infix {–um-}. Comparative markers may be in the form of words having similar meaning but not fully substitutable. This is due to different style contained in each comparative marker. Comparative markers are inherently inclusive in the vehicle of pêpindhan so that (i) no other linguistic units can be inserted between comparative marker and vehicle, and (ii) comparative marker is always in the initial position. Pêpindhan can also be in the forms of  i) a simple sentence or ii) a subordinative compound sentence. When a tenor (in pêpindhan) in the form of a simple sentence is intelligible or contextually inclusive, it can be deleted. Such a pêpindhan has idiomatic meaning. There are utterances in the form of pêpindhan but the vehicle refers to something that has been mentioned by the tenor, therefore, they have no comparative meaning. Such utterances are known as pseudo-pêpindhan.


Pêpindhan, comparativeness, tenor, vehicle

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