Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

Thanaya I.N.A.


This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks), due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C), the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.


bitublocks, moisture adsorption, thermal exposure, vacuum saturation, volume stability.


  1. Forth, J.P., Zoorob, S.E., Thanaya, I.N.A., Development of Bitumen-Bound Waste Aggregate Building Blocks, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Construction Materials, 2006, Volume 159, Issue1, Thomas Telford-London, February 2006, pp 23-32.
  2. Thanaya, I.N.A., Forth, J.P., Zoorob, S.E., Incorporation of Fly Ash and Furnace Bottom Ash in Bitublock, Proceedings of AshTech, 2006, International Coal Ash Technology Conference, The Birmingham Hippodrom Theatre, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK, Sunday 15th – Wednesday 17th May 2006, ISBN CD-Rom 0-9553490-0-1, 978-0-9553490-0-3, Editted by Dr. Lindon Sear, Paper ref: A16.
  3. Brick Industry Association (BIA), Technical Notes on Brick Construction Volume 18, Virginia, 1991.
  4. Thanaya, I N.A., Building Blocks Incorporating Waste Materials Bound With Bitumen, The Civil Engineering Dimension, Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia, Volume 12, no 1, March 2010., pp. 36-43.
  5. British Standard (BS) 594-1, Hot Rolled Asphalt and Other Pave Areas, Part 1, 2003.
  6. Whitheoak, The Shell Bitumen Handbook, 1991.
  7. Forth, J.P., Zoorob, S.E., Thanaya, I.N.A., The Time-Dependent Performance of Bitublock Single Leaf Masonry, CD Proceedings of 14th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference, Manly Pacific Hotel, Sydney, Australia, 17-20 February 2008, Session 9A: Masonry Durability, 14IBMAC_192.pdf.
  8. British Standard (BS) 3921, Specification for Clay Bricks, 1985.
  9. Vekey de, R.C., Brickwork and Blockwork, Construction Materials, Their Nature and Beahviour, Third Edition, Editted by J.M. Illston and P.L.J. Domone, Spon Press, London and New York, 2001.
  10. British Standard (BS) 6073-1, Precast Concrete Masonry Units, 1981.
  11. Tapsir, S.H., Time-Dependent Lost of Post-Tensioned Diaphragm and Fin Masonry Wall, PhD Thesis, Civil Engineering Department, University of Leeds, UK, 1985.
  12. Drysdale, R. G., Hamid, A. A., and Baker, L. R., Masonry Structures: Behaviour and Design, Prentice-Hall, 1994.
  13. Wilson, M. A., Carter, M. A., and Hoff, W. D., British Standard and RILEM Water Absorption Tests: A critical evaluation, Journal of Materials and Structures, Vol. 32, October 1999, pp. 571-578.[CrossRef]
  14. British Standard (BS) 812, Testing Aggregates, Part 2: Methods of Determination of Density, 1995.
  15. Advance Structural Design (ADS), How do I Design Joints in Brickwork and other Masonry?, 2007, http://www.structuraldesigns.com.au/FAQs/ Masonry/How%20do%20I%20design%20Expansion% 20Joints.htm, Visited: 21-09-07.
  16. Domone, P.L., Part Three: Concrete, In Construction Materials Their Nature and Behaviour, Edited by J.M. Illston, Second Edition, E&F Spon, 1994.
  17. Neville, A.M, Properties of Concrete, 3rd Edition, Longman Scientific and Technical, 1991.

Full Text: PDF

Instructions for Preparing Papers for CED.docx
The Journal is published by The Institute of Research & Community Outreach - Petra Christian University.

©All right reserved 2016.Civil Engineering Dimension, ISSN: 1410-9530, e-ISSN: 1979-570X


View My Stats

Copyright © Research Center Web-Dev Team